佛正觉后 2449 年 ‖ 西元 2017 年 12月 12 日

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Ven. Bhikkhu Vūpasama 随佛尊者简介

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  一、法脉传承

  随佛禅师(Ven. Bhikkhu Vūpasama)为华人,出生于台湾,修学佛法至今已四十余年,在世界各地创办「原始佛教会」,是还原、振兴已经隐没约有两千二百余年之原始佛教的法脉传人。

  禅师出家于缅甸铜鍱部僧团,剃度师是承续雷迪大师(Ven. Ledi Sayadaw C.E. 1846~1923)禅法及道场系统之Baddanta Zagara Bhivamsa 长老。禅师现今担任中华、美国、马来西亚、澳洲、欧洲原始佛教会终生导师,兼台湾、马来西亚、纽约等地中道禅林的导师,相近共学为奉守原始佛法的「中道僧团」。

  随佛禅师对于佛教教法的探究与修行,主要的研究是「从佛教传承的最古老教义中,探寻佛教初始时期的教法,并致力于 释迦佛陀教法、禅法及菩提道次第原貌的探究、阐扬与实践」。

  随佛禅师不仅传承原始佛教法脉,也熟习汉传佛教各宗宗义,印度菩萨道之「般若」、「瑜伽」与「如来藏」等三系思想,特别是对《般若经》、《中论》的思想与「禅宗」的禅法,有深入的体会与教学经验。

  2011 年,禅师在台湾、马来西亚、美国等地,延请南传佛教各国长老与中道僧团共同举办《四圣谛佛教联合宣言》,促进锡兰、缅甸、泰国、寮国、柬埔寨、美国、马来西亚、台湾各地僧人的交流合作,提升「四圣谛佛教」的社会影响力。

  2014 年依原始佛教会为基础,再创立「四圣谛佛教会」,团结仰信「四圣谛」的原始佛教及南传佛教,提倡「原始佛教、南传上座、汉传显教、藏传密乘,四系一家,同利人间」。

  2015 年,禅师依据《阿含经》、《佛说阿弥陀经》、《毗尼母经》的传诵,著作《三阶念佛弥陀禅》,提倡「持名念佛、定心念佛、实相念佛」的三阶念佛,导归「见因缘法之实相念佛」,正确为世人揭示「由末法向正法」的弥陀法门。《三阶念佛弥陀禅》指出:「弥陀行者终是原始佛教行者,原始佛教行者也是弥陀行者」,促进原始佛教、汉传佛教是一家无争、和谐共荣的新时代。

  自2013 起,禅师在中国各地寺院广弘禅法,引导中国佛弟子学习经法、禅法,促进佛教文化的交流、学习。

  2015 年,随佛禅师与日本曹洞宗东隆真禅师、锡兰佛牙寺Wendaruwe Sri Upali Anunayaka Thero,共同举行联合宣法,促进佛教各界的合作。

  随佛禅师已经完成阿难系汉译《相应阿含》(现误译名《杂阿含》)及优波离系南传《相应部》的比对研究,更进一步的根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》之〈因缘相应〉、〈食相应〉、〈圣谛相应〉、〈界相应〉、〈五阴(蕴)相应〉、〈六处相应〉及〈四念处等道品相应〉等〈七事修多罗〉的共说,「依经证经」的还原 佛陀原说教法。

  原始佛教的教义,不同于分别说部为主的南传佛教。原始佛教最主要的内容有: 1.「六处分位」的「十二因缘法」; 2.「十二因缘观」的九种禅法; 3.观十二因缘、次第起七觉分,先断无明、后断贪欲的「禅法次第」; 4.依七觉分,次第究竟「四圣谛三转、十二行」,成就正觉、离贪、慈悲喜舍、解脱、阿耨多罗三藐三菩提的「一乘道次第」。

  随佛禅师既不受取、不积蓄、不使用钱财,也无「为僧人管理金钱供养的净人」,常年游化宣法于世界各地,不定居一处。

  二、传承著作

  随佛禅师在目前最重要的中文著作有六种:

  1. 《原始佛法与佛教之流变》:本书是依经、依律为准,兼及各派论藏与史献的探究,考证佛世时的教法、两次结集内容。厘清部派分裂始末、部派思想的演革与分流,兼及大乘学派的传出、演变及印度法灭。禅师写作本书历时约六年,内文约百万字,是了解原始佛法与后世佛教流变的重要著作。
  1. 《因缘法之原说与奥义》:本书分为《因缘法之原说与异义》、《因缘法之奥义》两部,禅师写作本书历时约两年余,内文共约六十万字。主要内容是根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》之〈七事修多罗〉的共说为准,「依经证经」的还原 佛陀原说之「六处分位」的正统「十二因缘法」。此外,本书兼考证出自部派佛教之最古老论书《舍利弗阿毗昙论》的论义,探讨其对后世学派思想的偏差影响及发展,引导佛教各派学人重新回归 佛陀的经说教法、禅法、道次第。禅师另有《十二因缘经法原说略讲》传世,是依据〈七事修多罗〉的经说为准,精要阐明「六处分位」的「十二因缘法」。
  1. 《中道禅法》:本书根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》之古老〈七事修多罗〉的共说为准,依「六处分位」之正统十二缘起法,开显正确经说之「十二因缘观」及「十二因缘观的九种禅法」,畅演「七觉分」的实修禅法及生起次第,体证「四圣谛三转、十二行」的中道正觉、解脱苦恼、三藐三菩提。
  1. 《人间佛教之中道行》:本书根据古老〈七事修多罗〉为准,依据「因缘法」为核心,再以「四圣谛三转、十二行」为实践次第,完成「解决问题,灭除苦恼」为宗旨之「人间佛教的思想及实践论证」,充份达成「契合真实佛法,体现开展人间生活与修证菩提的一致性」。禅师重新依据「因缘、缘生」为世间真相,舍弃后世佛教误以「无常、苦、非我、空,或唯心、唯识」作为诸法实相的岔路。坚定「显正即破邪」的真道,远离「破邪即显正」的讹误,显现 释迦佛陀教示的「缘起中道之人间正行」。
  1. 《相应菩提道次第》:本书根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》之古老〈七事修多罗〉的共说为准,采用约300篇经说传诵的排比对照,编辑出「六处分位」的十二因缘法,以及「先断无明,后断贪爱」的菩提道次第。禅师另著有《相应菩提道次第纲要》,依据〈七事修多罗〉的经说为准,「依经证经」的精要阐明「先断无明,后断贪爱」的「一乘菩提道次第」,重新回归初期佛教的菩提道次第。
  1. 《原始佛教相应阿含经》:本书是根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》之古老〈七事修多罗〉为准,兼及考证第一、二次经法结集,探明后世佛教各学派论藏之论义与发展,最后滤净《相应阿含》、《相应部》当中出自后世论义揉杂的论义经诵,重新回归初期佛教的经诵教法。

  随佛禅师常年教导经法及禅法,已出版的中文著作有:

  1. 《跟随 佛陀的人》(2003出版)
  1. 《不食肉与慈心之道》(2005出版)
  1. 《相应菩提道次第》(2008出版)
  1. 《原始佛教之确证与开展》(2010出版)
  1. 《嫉妒的觉知与止息》(2011出版)
  1. 《突破困难的智慧与方法》(2012出刊、2014出版)
  1. 《正觉的财富观与生涯规划》(2014出版)
  1. 《正觉人生的规划与落实》(2014出版)
  1. 《十二因缘经法原说略讲》(2014出版)
  1. 《相应菩提道次第纲要》(2014出刊、2015出版)
  1. 《原始佛教之界定》(2014出版)
  1. 《七觉分统贯 佛陀一代圣教》(2015出版)
  1. 《净土真义》(2014出版)
  1. 《三阶念佛弥陀禅》(2015出版)

 

  2016年预定出版有:

  1. 《随佛行道:第一辑》
  1. 《因缘法之原说与奥义》之《上部-原说与异义》
  1. 《原始佛法与佛教之流变》
  1. 《中道禅法》
  1. 《人间佛教之中道行》

 

  2017年预定出版有:

  1. 《原始佛教相应阿含经》
  1. 《解脱与三藐三菩提》
  1. 《缘起中道与空之探究》
  1. 《四无量心之修证》

  三、传授之禅法与修证次第:

  1. 先守护根门,住于根律仪
  1. 由「安那般那念」入门,修习初禅定,调伏掉举、昏沉,兼修不净想、慈心想、六随念、明分想。
  1. 修念觉分:如实观十二因缘为核心,又分别说有九种禅法:观四念处集与灭、观五阴集法与灭法、观六触入处集与灭、观世间集与世间灭、观有身集与有身灭、观食之集与灭、观三摩地勤行成就之神足、观老死集与老死灭,最后是「观四圣谛(初转)的苦谛、苦集谛、苦灭谛」。
  1. 观因缘观中极重要之「七观智」、「四十四观门」与「九十二生法显现」,明见五阴是缘生法,缘生法则无常、非我亦非我所,得知:若生贪爱则有苦。
  1. 明见五受阴是缘生法,贪欲是患法、苦法,离贪欲是灭法,故得正见「于五受阴当离欲而得灭苦」。如是,如实智见「五受阴之缘生与灭尽」,亦即是如实智见「十二因缘之生法、灭法」,此即 佛陀所说:「先知法住,后知涅盘」,具足七十七种智,已经得明、断无明,得断身见、断疑,当于佛、法、僧成就证净,三恶趣永断,具足慧解脱。
  1. 修择法觉分:当已如实智见「五阴之缘起与灭尽」,即得如实正见「生死苦灭之道迹」──八正道,是谓:「于圣道如实知见」,具足四十四种智。如是,已得具足四圣谛初转、四行的明见,得再断戒禁取见,具足慧根、信根,决定趣向三藐三菩提。
  1. 修精进觉分:若已具足四圣谛初转、四行的明见,住于正念、正智,当精进「于六触处(五受阴)依远离、依无欲、依灭、向于舍」,次第修持圣、无漏、出世间八正道,也称为「贤圣法律无上修根」。如是以「慧根」摄导修习精进根、念根、定根,正向于苦灭、解脱、三藐三菩提。
  1. 依据「七觉分」的修证次第,教导「转智息贪十四法要」
  1. 修喜、猗、定觉分:不失正念、正智,精进于「六触处(五受阴)离贪爱,断五受阴系缚苦」。如是修习者,得于胜妙出离生随喜、欢喜(喜觉分);胜妙出离生随喜、欢喜已,得身、心猗息(猗觉分);身、心猗息已,远离乐住,内净一心(定觉分)。如是依四圣谛初转的如实智见,次第修习满足出世间八正道,当成就正定,断贪爱、瞋恚,识食断、具足解脱。如是成就四圣谛第二转、四行,具足精进根、念根、定根。
  1. 修舍觉分:当正定已生,慧根、信根、精进根、念根、定根等五根,已经次第修习满足,愚痴、贪爱、瞋恚已舍断,得解脱,具解脱知见:「我生已尽,梵行已立,所作已作,自知不受后有」,成就四圣谛第三转、四行。如是修习「七觉分」,即得统贯 佛陀一代圣教。
  1. 如是修习「七觉分」满足,成就「四圣谛三转、十二行」,具足正觉、离贪、慈悲喜舍、解脱,成就阿耨多罗三藐三菩提。
  1. 四谛大用:师徒口耳传授的重要教导。

  四、还原、重现原始佛法及确立人间佛教的贡献:

  随佛禅师对佛教教法的探究与修行,主要是「从佛教传承的最古老教义中,探寻佛教初始时期的教法,并致力于 释迦佛陀教法、禅法及菩提道次第原貌的探究、阐扬与实践」。禅师在部派佛教分裂史的考证研究,还有部派佛教在教法上的演变始末上都有卓越的研究成果。

  随佛禅师根据汉译《相应阿含》及南传《相应部》之〈因缘相应〉、〈食相应〉、〈圣谛相应〉、〈界相应〉、〈五阴(蕴)相应〉、〈六处相应〉、〈四念处等道品相应〉等七事修多罗当中古老经法的共说,比对、还原佛灭当年「第一次结集」的集成。经过多年的探究与修行,在回归 释迦佛陀的原说教导上,主要有十点作为与贡献:

  1. 考证、显现印度佛教僧团与教法演变的真相。
  1. 还原「十二因缘法」:还原依「六处为分位」之「十二因缘法」的原说。
  1. 重现「十二因缘观」:从「六入处观集法、灭法」入手,现观「十二因缘集法与灭法」。同时确定「观四念处集与灭」、「观五阴集法与灭法」、「观六触入处集与灭」、「观世间集与世间灭」、「观有身集与有身灭」、「观食之集与灭」、「观三摩地勤行成就之神足」、「观老死集与老死灭」、「观四圣谛(初转)的苦谛、苦集谛、苦灭谛」,都是修习「观十二因缘的集与灭」。
  1. 重现「一乘菩提道次第」:还原「先断无明,后断贪爱」,重现 佛陀原说「四圣谛三转、十二行」「一乘菩提道次第」
  1. 重现「七菩提支」之「中道禅法」:经由还原 佛陀亲说的「十二因缘法」,才能重新显现「修十二因缘观,次第起七菩提支,统贯三十七道品,次第的圆满四圣谛三转、十二行,成就正觉、离贪、慈悲喜舍、解脱、阿耨多罗三藐三菩提」的「中道禅法」。
  1. 建立「中道僧团」:确立了「依经、依律、不依论,戮力实践,笃实修行」的学风。唯以经教、禅法、道次第弘法化众,建立既不受取、不使用、不积蓄钱财,也无有「专为僧人管理金钱供养、买办事宜的『净人』」,修行、宣扬、传承「中道禅法」的中道僧团。
  1. 还原「经说传诵」:根据汉译《相应阿含》、南传《相应部》当中七事相应教的古老共说,将汉译说一切有部诵本的《相应阿含》予以整治、滤净后世部义的揉杂,还原为契合「佛陀原说」的传诵,并进一步编著出易让一般民众了解的白话本与解说。这是攸关原始佛教复兴的根本大事,目前中道僧团正积极进行中,预计在2016年完成整编。这将为佛法再现人间,做出可贵与广大、长远的贡献。
  1. 创立原始佛教会:依据「原始佛教」的教法及次第,团结海内外的各派佛教学人,共同为世间的昌隆与佛教的团结尽一份努力。
  1. 创立四圣谛佛教会:依据「四圣谛」促进「原始佛教」及「南传部派」的团结,禀持「原始佛教、南传上座、汉传显教、藏传密乘,四系一家、同利人间」的准则,共同昌隆佛教。
  1. 完成人间佛教的思想及实践论证:

  一、二十世纪初,太虚大师首先提倡「法界圆觉学为本」的人生佛教,针砭以超荐、度亡为主的传统佛教弊病。

  二、二十世纪中叶,印顺导师提倡「性空唯名学为本」的人间佛教,走出中、后期大乘佛教思想的「唯心、唯识」,重视十善为基础的人间正行,归向「空、无自性」的印度初期大乘教说。

  两位佛教大师尽一生的努力,前后经过近约百年的「人间佛教」革新运动,都为华人佛教及社会产生巨大、正面、可贵的影响。但是,不论是以「唯心、唯识」,或采用「无常、苦、非我、空」作为认识论,都是源自《舍利弗阿毗昙论》之「破邪即显正」的思惟,偏向「否定现实世间」的讹误,无法达成「开展人间生活与修证菩提的一致性」。

  三、二十一世纪初,承续 佛陀及太虚、印顺两位大师的利世精神,随佛禅师从古老〈七事修多罗〉探得「因缘法」是世间的真相,重新依据「因缘法」为核心,「四圣谛三转、十二行」为实践次第,契合「显正得舍妄,舍妄不显正」的事实,回归「解决问题,灭除苦恼」的佛法宗旨,遂能达成「契合真实佛法,体现开展人间生活与修证菩提的一致性」,完成人间佛教的思想及实践论证。人间佛教百年三部曲的探究与革新运动,终于在思想、实践的主轴,彻底回归 佛陀亲教的因缘法、四圣谛,证明了人间佛教即是佛陀的佛教,充份展现 佛陀的佛教是真正的人间佛教。


  英文简介

  A Brief Introduction to Venerable Bhikkhu Vūpasama Thera

  A. The Lineage

  Venerable Bhikkhu Vūpasama Thera was born in Taiwan and is of Chinese heritage. He studied and practiced the Buddha's doctrines for over forty years and established Original Buddhism Society in several countries. He is the Dhamma lineage successor who has restored and revitalized the original teaching of Buddha Sākyamuni which was dormant for nearly 2200 years.

  He was ordained by Ven. Baddanta Zagara Bhivamsa, a disciple of Ven. Ledi Sayadaw (C.E. 1846-1923) from a Burmese Theravada Saṅgha. Ven. Bhikkhu Vūpasama Thera is currently the chief mentor of the Original Buddhism Society in Taiwan, America, Malaysia, Australia, and Europe. He is also the mentor of "Sambodhi World" in Taiwan, Malaysia, and New York. All of his disciples including the "Sambodhi Saṅgha" practice Original Buddhism.

  Master Vūpasama’s core research and practice of Buddhism teachings are in the area of revitalizing the original teaching of Buddha Sākyamuni from the most ancient scriptures collected by the First Buddhist Council, a council convened in the same year the Buddha passed away. His main effort is to spread the original teaching, meditation techniques, and the path to enlightenment as taught by Buddha Sākyamuni.

  Master Vūpasama has not only succeeded the Dharma lineage of Original Buddhism, he is also knowledgeable in all schools of Chinese Buddhism, and in the ideologies of the three Indian Bodhisattva Schools, namely "Prajñā," "Yogācāya," and "Tathāgata-garba." In addition, he has profound practical and teaching experience in the ideologies of "Prajñā-Pāramitā Sutras" and "Mādhyamikā commentary," as well as the meditation methods of the Chinese Zen School.

  In 2011, the Master invited many elder monks of Theravada Saṅgha to organize “The Joint Declaration of Buddhism and the Four Noble Truths" in Taiwan, Malaysia, and the United States. These activities facilitated exchanges and cooperation among the Saṅgha members in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, United States, Malaysia, and Taiwan, as well as promoted social influence of "Buddhism of the Four Noble Truths."

  In 2014, based on the mission of the Original Buddhism Society, the Master founded “The Buddhist Society of the Four Noble Truths” in order to unite disciples of Original Buddhism and those of Theravada Buddhism who believe and practice the Four Noble Truths. He advocates the following four lineages: Original Buddhism, Theravada School, Chinese exoteric School, and Tibetan esoteric School to share the same mission to benefit all beings.

  In 2015, the Master based on "Agama Sūtras," "Amitābha Sūtra," and "Vinaya-Mātika Sūtra" wrote "Three Stages of Mindfulness Recitation and Meditation of the Amitābha Buddha." He advocates the three stages of mindfulness of the Buddha: "chanting the name," "concentrating," and "realizing the truths" by observing the principle of Relevant Influencing (Nidānas). The Master uses this method to redirect “Dharma-Ending Age” back to “the Age of the Right Dharma.” This book points out an important message: "the practitioners of Amitābha school will actually become the practitioners of Original Buddhism; the practitioners of Original Buddhism are also the practitioners of Amitābha school." He promotes the idea that Original Buddhism and Chinese Buddhism are of the same family and will prosper in harmony in this new era.

  Since 2013, the Master began teaching meditation in various temples in China. He guides Chinese Buddhists to study the Buddha's Original teachings and meditation methods, and also promotes the exchange and learning of various Buddhist cultures.

  In 2015, Ven. Bhikkhu Vūpasama Thera gave Dharma talks together with Rev. Tenrai Ryushin Azuma Roshi of Japanese Soto Zen lineage, and later with Venerable Wendaruwe Sri Upali Anunayaka Thero from the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka, to promote cooperation among various Buddhism Schools.

  Master Vūpasama has completed a comparative study on "Samyukta-Āgama" of the Ven. Anānda lineage and "Samyutta-Nikāya" of the Ven. Upāli lineage. His study is based on the common doctrines, cross referencing with verification of suttas of the seven categories ("Relevant Influencing [Nidānas]," "nutriment," "noble truths," "realms," "five abstruseness [aggregates]," "six sense bases," and "Noble Paths [including Four Objects of Mindfulness]") of Samyukta-Āgama and Samyutta-Nikāya in order to restore the original teaching of the Buddha.

  The doctrine of Original Buddhism is different from Theravada Buddhism, which is mainly based on the school of Vibhajjavāda. The main contents of Original Buddhism include:

  1. Using six sense bases as the divider for "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)";
  1. Using nine methods of insight meditation to observe "The Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)";
  1. Using insight meditation to observe "The Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)" in order to cultivate the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) to cease Ignorance (Avijjā) before the Cessation of Craving (Lobha);
  1. Basing on the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) to practice in stages of the three rounds along with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths to accomplish awakening, detachment of craving, the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz. loving-kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi through "the Single Path of Awakening" (Ekāyana-magga).

  Not only does Master Vūpasama not receive, use, nor accumulate money offered by devotees, but he also does not have a kappiya (layman) to manage money on his behalf. He travels around the world to spread the Buddha's original teachings and does not reside in one location permanently.

  B. Publication of the Inheritance

  Ven. Bhikkhu Vūpasama Thera’s has had six major publications.

  1. The Master spent six years writing “Original Buddhism and the Evolution of Buddhism”: The contents are based on the Suttas, Vinaya, and Abhidhamma teachings, as well as historical records collected during the first two Buddhist Councils. The book clarifies the early schisms in Buddhism; the evolution and diversion of teachings within Sectarian Buddhism; the beginning and evolution of Mahāyāna Tradition; and the decline of Buddhism in India.
  1. “The fundamental and esoteric teachings of Relevant Influencing (Nidānas)”: It is broken down in two parts and there are a total of six hundred thousand words. Part I is the fundamental teachings of Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) and its deviations. Part II is the esoteric teachings of Relevant Influencing (Nidānas). The main contents are based on the common suttas of seven categories within "Samyukta-Āgama" and "Samyutta-Nikāya". The variations within the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing originated from the most ancient Abhidhamma – The Sāriputta Abhidhamma. These deviations have had a major impact on the development of different schools of Buddhism after the schism. The Master’s book has restored the original teaching, meditation techniques and the path to enlightenment as taught by Buddha Sākyamuni. A concise version of this book was also published to clarify the original teaching of the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda).
  1. “The Middle Path (majjhimā paṭipadā) Meditation Technique”: This book discloses the proper teaching method associated with “The Observation of the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing” and “The Nine Methods of Meditation Based on The Observation of the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing”. The contents of this book are based on the common suttas of seven categories in "Samyukta-Āgama" and "Samyutta-Nikāya". It also elucidates the meditation practice of the Seven Factors for Awakening (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) to sequentially complete three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths, as to accomplish awakening, liberation from distress, and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi.
  1. “The Middle-Path Practice for Humanistic Buddhism”: This book is based on the ancient suttas of the seven categories, highlighting the core teachings of the Relevant Influencing (Nidānas), and the practice of the Four Noble Truths. Its purpose is to highlight the problems of resolution and eradication of distress. There is no contradiction between our daily living and the practice for enlightenment. The Master emphasizes Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) as the actuality of this world, and discards the misconceptions of using impermanence, suffering, non-self, emptiness, to explain the phenomenon of existence. The Buddha’s teachings regarding the Middle Path and Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) are the proper ways for Humanistic Buddhism as they are based on the actuality.
  1. “The Connected Discourses on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment”: This book is based on three hundred suttas from the "Samyukta-Āgama" and "Samyutta-Nikāya". In addition, a more concise version of this book also highlights the "the Single Path of Awakening" (Ekāyana-magga).
  1. “The Samyukta-Āgama of Original Buddhism”: This book is based on the suttas of the seven categories within "Samyukta-Āgama" and "Samyutta-Nikāya". In addition, suttas collected during the first two Buddhist Councils are also used as proof of the development of distorted ideologies caused by the intermingling of suttas from different sects. The book refutes all distorted ideologies as a means to restore the original teaching of Buddhism.

  Master Vūpasama is continuing teaching Buddhism and conducting meditation retreats. His publications in Chinese are as follows:

  1. In the Path of the Buddha, 2003
  1. Vegetarian and the Path of Loving-Kindness, 2005
  1. The Connected Discourses on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, 2008.
  1. The Testimony of Original Buddhism and its Development, 2010.
  1. Awareness and Cessation of Jealousy, 2011.
  1. The Wisdom and Methods to Overcome Difficulties, 2014.
  1. An Enlightened View on Wealth and Life Planning, 2015.
  1. Planning and Fulfillment of an Enlightened Life, 2014.
  1. Brief Talks on the Original Teaching of the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing, 2014.
  1. The Outline of the Connected Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, 2015.
  1. Definition of Original Buddhism, 2014.
  1. An Integration of a Generation of Noble Teachings of Buddha Sākyamuni Based on the Seven Factors of Awakening, 2015.
  1. The Truth of Pure Land Teaching, 2014.
  1. Three Stages of Mindfulness Recitation and Meditation of the Amitābha Buddha, 2015.

  To be published in 2016:

  1. Following the Buddha’s Path - Part 1
  1. The fundamental and esoteric teachings of Relevant Influencing (Nidānas)” - Part I: the fundamental and its deviations
  1. Original Buddhism and the Evolution of Buddhism
  1. The Middle Path (majjhimā paṭipadā) Meditation Technique
  1. The Middle Path Practice for Humanistic Buddhism

  To be Published in 2017:

  1. The Samyukta-Āgama of Original Buddhism
  1. Liberation and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi
  1. The Exploration of Middle-Path Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) and Emptiness
  1. The Practice and Achievement of the Four Immeasurable Attitudes

  C. Meditation Method and the stages for awakening path

  1. First, fulfill the restraint of sense-faculties (indriya-saṃvara-sīla) by exercising control over the sense organs.
  1. Develop the first jhana (a stage of meditative absorption) by practicing Ānāpānasati” (mindfulness of breathing) so as to abandon restlessness (uddhacca) and dullness (thina-middha). Meanwhile, develop contemplation on the unpleasant (asubhānupassin), loving-kindness (mettā-saññā), the six recollections (cha anussatiṭṭhānāni) and the six things conducive to true knowledge (cha vijjābhāgiyā dhammā).
  1. Cultivate the enlightenment factor of mindfulness (satisambojjhaṅgo): discerning, as it actually is, the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda) is the core meditation method, which is alternatively expounded with the other nine meditation methods, namely, contemplating the arising and cessation of the Four Foundation of Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna), of the Five abstruseness (aggregates), of Six Bases for Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ), of the World (loka), of the body in Being (sakkāya), of the four kinds of Nutriment (cattārome āhārā), of the base of power endowed with concentration founded on discrimination and the fabrications of exertion (vīriyasāsamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ), of the aging-death, and lastly contemplating the truth of suffering, the arising and cessation of suffering during the first round of the four noble truths.
  1. Practice the most crucial parts of the contemplation of Relevant Influencing -- the 'Seven stages of insight meditation', 'The Forty Four Contemplation methods', and the 'Ninety-Two Arising Manifestation' which leads to clarity that the five abstruseness (aggregates) are the phenomena of Relevant Influencing (paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), and therefore phenomenon of Relevant Influencing (paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma) is impermanent (anicca), non-ego (anattā) and is not of mine, and consequently learn that from birth comes suffering (dukkha).
  1. After seeing clearly that the five abstruseness (aggregates) are phenomena of relevant influencing (paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), one realizes that craving is a trouble-maker which leads to suffering, dissipation of craving is the path to cessation of suffering. The right view that 'with the dissipation of craving for the five abstruseness (aggregates) comes the cessation of suffering' is obtained. Thus, one sees, as it actually is, how 'the five abstruseness (aggregates) relevantly arise and annihilate'; or sees, as it actually is, the 'arising and cessation of the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)', as expounded by the Buddha: 'from the attainment of the knowledge of relevant influencing (dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇaṃ) comes the knowledge of Nibbāna', and possess the seventy seven types of knowledge; thus dispel ignorance, ego, and doubt; and consequently acquire indestructible confidence in Buddha, Dhamma and Saṅgha; falling no more into the three evil realms, thus possesses the wisdom for liberation.
  1. Practice the 'enlightenment factor of discrimination of Dhamma' (Dhamma vicaya) as follows:

  By seeing, as it actually is, how 'the five abstruseness (aggregates) relevantly arise and annihilate'; one thus clearly sees, as it actually is, the path leading to annihilation of birth, death and suffering—the Eight-fold Path. This is also known as 'seeing the noble path as it actually is’, and possessing the forty four types of knowledge. Thus, one has clarity of the first four aspects of the first round of the four noble truths, dissipates the views of distorted grasp of rules and vows, and possesses the root of wisdom and the root of faith, and is definitely led to samyak-sambodhi.

  1. Practice the 'enlightenment factor of diligence (viriya) as follows:

  Having possessed the clarity as a result of the first round with the first four aspects of the four noble truths, then by dwelling in the right mindfulness and wisdom, one should cultivate diligently the Six Bases for Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ) (i.e. the five abstruseness [aggregates]) in accordance with dispassion, aversion, and cessation that lead to liberation, sequentially practice the holy, cankerless (Anāsavā) and supra-mundane Eight-fold path, which is also known as 'the unexcelled development of the faculties in the discipline of a noble one '. Thus apply the root of wisdom to the development of the root of diligence, the root of mindfulness and the root of concentration respectively, one practices in such a way is destined for cessation of suffering, liberation, and samyak-sambodhi.

  1. In accordance with the sequence of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā), instructions on 'the fourteen essential methods on the development of wisdom and the cessation of craving will be given.
  1. Practice the 'enlightenment factors of Joy (pīti), Tranquility (Passaddhi) and Concentration (Samādhi) as follows:

  By dwelling in the right mindfulness and wisdom, cultivating diligently the Six Bases for Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ) for dispelling craving and the bond of the five abstruseness [aggregates]), one who practices as such will possess sympathetic joy from superior renunciation (enlightenment factors of Joy). Sympathetic joy gives rise to tranquility of body and mind (enlightenment factors of Tranquility); which subsequently leads to the disengagement from joy-abiding, thus, enabling pure one-pointedness concentration (enlightenment factors of Concentration).

  Thus, in accordance with clear vision as the result of the first round of the four noble truths, sequentially practice to fulfill the supra-mundane Eight-fold path, which consequently leads to the attainment of right concentration, detachment from craving and hatred, the disconnection from the nutriment of consciousness (viññāṇāhāro), and liberation. By so achieving, one completes the second round with the four aspects of the four noble truths, and possesses the root of exertion, the root of mindfulness and the root of concentration.

  1. Practice 'the enlightenment factor of equanimity' as follows:

  Upon the attainment of right concentration, one sequential attains the Five Roots, namely, the root of wisdom, the root of faith, the root of exertion, the root of mindfulness, and the root of concentration. Thus, dissipation of ignorance, craving, and hatred, the attainment of liberation with thorough knowledge and vision of liberation (vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti) normally proclaimed as 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what has to be done is done, there's no more this state of being' is achieved. This is the completion of the third round with the four aspects of the four noble truths.

  Practicing the seven enlightenment factors in such a way is the integrated manifestation of all the noble teachings of Buddha Sākyamuni of his lifetime.

  1. By so completing the practice of the 'seven factors of enlightenment', the three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths is so achieved, thus possesses enlightenment, dispassion, the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz. loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi.
  1. Utmost applications of the Four Noble Truths: the most important teachings will be given to the disciples by the master verbally.

  D. Contribution in Restoration and Reappearing of Original Buddhism and Establishment of Humanistic Buddhism

  Master Vūpasama’s main objectives in the exploration and practice of Buddhism are to investigate and discover the doctrines of Original Buddhism, making every effort to advocate and practice Buddha Sākyamuni's original teachings, meditation methods, and the stages for awakening path. The Master makes remarkable achievements of research both in the history of the division of Sectarian Buddhism and in the evolution of the doctrines of Sectarian Buddhism.

  Master Vūpasama has completed a comparative study on the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Ven. Anānda lineage and the Theravada Buddhism’s "Samyutta-Nikāya" of Ven. Upāli lineage. By comparing and verifying the common contents of the suttas of the seven categories, namely " Relevant Influencing (Nidānas)", "nutriment", "noble truths", "realms", "five abstruseness (aggregates)", "six sense bases", and "Noble Paths (including Four Objects of Mindfulness)" of Samyukta-Āgama and Samyutta-Nikāya, consequently he has restored the original works of the First Buddhist Council convened in the same year as the Buddha passed away. After many years of exploration and practices, Ven. Master has made ten major contributions in the restoration of the original teaching of the Buddha as follows:

  1. Research in unveiling the truth of the evolution of Saṅgha and the doctrines of the Buddhism in India.
  1. Restoration of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)" back to the original teaching with six sense bases as the divider.
  1. Recovering of the meditation methods of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)": contemplating the arising and cessation of six sense bases for insight into "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)"; meanwhile, confirming that “contemplating the arising and cessation of the Four Foundation of Mindfulness, the Five abstruseness (aggregates), Six Bases for Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ), the world(loka), the body in being (sakkāya), four kinds of nutriment (cattārome āhārā), the base of power endowed with concentration founded on discrimination and the fabrications of exertion (vīriyasāsamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ), the aging and death, the truth of suffering, the arising and cessation of suffering upon the realization of the first round of the four noble truths are all referring to the contemplation of the arising and cessation of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)".
  1. Recovering the Single Path of Awakening (Ekāyana-magga): restoring the cessation of Ignorance must come before the cessation of Craving as the stages of the three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths.
  1. Recovering the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) as the meditation method of the Middle way(majjhimā paṭipadā): by means of restoring the Buddha’s original teaching of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)", the meditation method of the middle path thus reappears, which is to exercise the meditation methods of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)" by sequentially fulfilling the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) integrating all of the thirty seven individual qualities of awakening (Bodhipakkhiyādhammā); and thus sequentially completing the three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths to accomplish awakening, detachment of craving, the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz. loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi.
  1. Establishing the "Sambodhi Saṅgha": The tradition of practices is to diligently exercise, to advocate and to carry the meditation of the middle path in strict accordance with suttas and vinaya rather than the commentaries (Abhidhamma), and with the principles of only advocating the suttas, meditation methods and the Single Path of Awakening, and with the rules of not receiving, using and accumulating money and of no use of lay attendant (kappiya).
  1. Restoration of the original recited suttas: The restoration is to review the suttas of the seven categories in the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Ven. Anānda lineage and "Samyutta-Nikāya" of Ven. Upāli lineage, and based on the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Sabbatthivāda school to reproduce the original recited suttas by means of remediating and filtering of alteration and additions implanted by Sectarian Buddhists. A version of vernacular Chinese shall be produced too. This is fundamentally vital to the revitalization of Original Buddhism and is being undertaken by the "Sambodhi Saṅgha" with an estimate schedule of completion in 2016, which shall be a valuable, massive and long-lasting contribution to the reappearing of Dharma.
  1. Establishing Original Buddhism Society: to unite local and overseas practitioners of Original Buddhism to contribute collaborative efforts to the prosperity of the world and unity of Buddhism.
  1. Establishing the Buddhist Society of Four Noble Truth: to promote the union of both Original Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism in accordance with the Four Noble Truths, as well as to jointly advocate Buddhism and to make collaborative efforts to the welfare of the world with the guideline that we are one family of the four lineages, namely, Original Buddhism, Theravada, Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism.
  1. Completing the demonstration of the ideologies and practices of Humanistic Buddhism:

  a. In the early twentieth century, Ven. Taixu who was the first to advocate “Buddhism for Human life” based on the doctrine of “the Dharmadhaatu Teaching of Perfect Awakening” (法界圆觉学), indicating his criticism of conventional Buddhism with an emphasis on funeral services and rites.

  b. In the mid-twentieth century, Ven. Yin Shun advocated "Humanistic Buddhism" based on “Emptiness of its own entity” (性空唯名学), which left behind the mid-term and late-term Mahayana Yogacara Buddhism with philosophy of “Mind-only or Consciousness-only or Cognition-only” (emphasizing phenomenology and ontology) (虚妄唯识论), and “embryo of the Tathagata” (真常唯心论), and returned to the emphasis of the ten good deeds of the human lives and the philosophy of “emptiness and non-own-nature” of the early Mahayana Buddhism in India.

  Both Masters dedicated their life time to the reform of Chinese Buddhism to Humanistic Buddhism over the last century, causing a huge, massive and valuable effect to the Chinese society and the community of Chinese Buddhists. However, either adopting “Mind-only or Consciousness-only” or adopting the “impermanence, suffering, no-self, and emptiness” as the foundation for epistemology are both originated from the “Sariputta Abhidhamma”, and both apply the method of “affirm by denials of all” leading to the denial of the real world and the inability of achieving “the accordance of both development of human life and attainment of the enlightenment”.

  c. In the early twenty first century, inheriting the spirit of altruism of the two Masters, Ven. Taixu and Ven. Yin-Shun, Ven. Vūpasama discovers that the Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) is the truth of the world and life, thus, realign the Humanistic Buddhism with the Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) as the core foundation, the three round with twelve aspects of four noble truths as the stages of realization, the accordance of the fact of “To disprove error will not expose correctness whereas when correctness is exposed errors will be disproved” and the purposes of Buddhism as to solve problems and to eliminate the cause of suffering, therefore, achieving “the accordance of both exploitation of human life and attainment of the enlightenment”. The ideologies and practices of Humanistic Buddhism are eventually re-aligned with the original teaching of Buddha, namely Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) and four noble truths, after the three stages of development over the past century. This proves that the Humanistic Buddhism is in fact Buddhism of the Buddha himself, and thoroughly demonstrates that Buddhism of the Buddha himself is the real Humanistic Buddhism.